Handout  

Module:  Radiation physics, Characteristics, Biology and Chemistry
Program Competency: 
Patient Assessment   
Course Competency:
Students will produce diagnostic radiographic images utilizing radiation physics and chemistry principles, following the ALARA principle and all ChSCC radiation and safety guidelines.
Facilitator:
Dr. Tena Phillips                                                     
Primary Resources: Dental Radiography Principles & Techniques, 4th or 5th Ed. Chapter 2 "Radiation Physics"; Chapter 3 "Radiation Characteristics"; Chapter 4 "Radiation Biology" 
Supplemental Resources:
previous PP & modules
Key Terms:

Acetic acid

Anode

Absorbed dose

Bremstrahlung

ALARA

Beam intensity

Collimator

Cathode

Coherent scatter

Copper stem

Compton scatter

Contrast

Cumulative effects

Coulomb

Critical organ

Dose

Density

Direct theory

Elon

Dose equivalent

Dosimeter

Filtration

Exposure

Film badge

Free radical

Focal spot

Focusing cup

Half value layer

Genetic effects

Gray

Impulse

Hydroquinone

Image receptor

Inverse square law

Indirect theory

Insulating oil

Kilovoltage peak rule

Ion pair

Kilovoltage

Maximum permissible dose

Latent period

Maximum accumulated dose

Object

Milliamperage

Milliampere seconds

PID

Period of injury

Photon

Potassium bromide

Port

Potassium alum

Radioactivity

Primary beam

Rad

Roentgen

Recovery period

Rem

Sodium sulfite

Sievert

Sodium carbonate

Target

Sodium thiosulfate

Somatic effects

Tubehead

Thermionic emission

Transformer

Wavelength

Tungsten

Vacuum tube

 

Learning Objectives

  1. Explain atomic structure in sufficient detail to provide an understanding of x-radiation production,     
  2. Specify the function of each of the primary components of a simplified x-ray unit including, cathode (tungsten filament and molybdenum focusing cup), anode(tungsten target and copper stem),cooling mechanism, vacuum, collimator, filter, step up transformer, step down transformer,
  3. Differentiate between ionizing radiation and other types of radiation,
  4. Explain ways to reduce scatter radiation,
  5. Describe how properties of ionizing radiation are related to its use in dentistry,
  6. Compare and contrast sharpness, distortion and magnification,
  7. Compare exposure measurement, dose measurement and dose equivalent measurement with regards to what is measured and the standard and SI units of measurement,
  8. Describe the effects on magnification with a change in tube to film distance,
  9. Compare the effects of altering the "film to object" distance and  "source to object" distance,
  10. Describe how changes in millamperage, kilovoltage and time changes the quality of radiographic exposures,
  11. Utilize the kilovoltage peak rule to vary exposure time in impulses,
  12. Compare Compton with coherent scatter radiation,
  13. Compare the direct theory to the indirect theory of radiation injury using appropriate key words,
  14. Compare characteristic radiation with Bremstrahlung radiation,
  15. Differentiate between a long and short scale of contrast,  
  16. Explain the inverse square law,
  17. Utilize the inverse square law to calculate exposure times and tube to film distance,  
  18. Explain the physical nature of electromagnetic radiation,
  19. Compare particulate to electromagnetic radiation,
  20. Understand the concept of half-value layer (hvl) in regard to x-ray beam quality,
  21. Determine the chemical components of developer and fixer and their purpose,
  22. Describe the six rules of shadow casting and which techniques are most ideal for each one. (bisecting vs paralleling)

Learning Activities:

         Read Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 9 in the text. 

         Answer the questions at the end of each chapter. 

         Review the power point presentation provided by Dr. T

Problem Solving:
Mr. Givens says he does not want radiographs because he is concerned about receiving too much radiation.  How do you respond to Mr, Givens?